澳门老永利总部

Tungsten Trioxide

tungsten trioxide

History

Tungsten has a rich history dating back to its discovery during the 18th century. Peter Woulfe was the first to recognize a new element in the naturally occurring mineral, wolframite. Tungsten was originally known as wolfram, explaining the choice of "W" for its elemental symbol. Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele contributed to its discovery as well with his studies on the mineral scheelite.
In 1841, a chemist named Robert Oxland gave the first procedures for preparing tungsten trioxide and sodium tungstate. He was granted patents for his work soon after, and is considered to be the founder of systematic tungsten chemistry.

Tungsten Trioxide Synonyms

Tungsten oxide, tungsten(IV) oxide (WO2), tungsten(VI) oxide (WO3), tungsten trioxide, tungsten(VI) trioxide, tungstic anhydride, CAS#1314-35-8 (WO3), ditungsten pentaoxide, tetratungsten undecaoxide, tungsten oxide, tungsten oxide (W2O5), scheelite, wolframite, ferberitetungsten oxide (W4O11),

Preparation

Tungsten(VI) oxide, also known as tungsten trioxide or tungstic anhydride, WO3, is a chemical compound containing oxygen and the transition metal tungsten. It is obtained as an intermediate in the recovery of tungsten from its minerals. Tungsten ores are treated with alkalis to produce WO3. Further reaction with carbon or hydrogen gas reduces tungsten trioxide to the pure metal.

2WO3 + 3C + heat → 2W + 3CO2
澳门老永利总部 WO3 + 3H2 + heat → W + 3H2O

Tungsten(VI) oxide occurs naturally in form of hydrates, which include minerals: tungstite WO3•H2O, meymacite WO3•2H2O and hydrotungstite (of same composition as meymacite, however sometimes written as H2WO4). These minerals are rare to very rare secondary tungsten minerals.
澳门老永利总部 Tungsten trioxide can be prepared in several different ways. CaWO4, or scheelite, is allowed to react with HCl to produce tungstic acid, which decomposes to WO3 and water at high temperatures.

CaWO4 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2WO4
H2WO4 + heat → H2O + WO3

澳门老永利总部Another common way to synthesize WO3 is by calcination of ammonium paratungstate (APT) under oxidizing conditions:

澳门老永利总部(NH4)10[H2W12O42]•4H2O → 12 WO3 + 10NH3 + 11H2O

Structure

The crystal structure of tungsten trioxide is temperature dependent. It is tetragonal at temperatures above 740 °C, orthorhombic from 330 to 740 °C, monoclinic from 17 to 330 °C, and triclinic from -50 to 17 °C. The most common structure of WO3 is monoclinic with space group P21/n.

Uses

tungsten trioxideTungsten trioxide is used for many purposes in everyday life. It is frequently used in industry to manufacture tungstates for x-ray screen phosphors, for fireproofing fabrics and in gas sensors. Due to its rich yellow color, WO3 is also used as a pigment in ceramics and paints.
In recent years, tungsten trioxide has been employed in the production of electrochromic windows, or smart windows. These windows are electrically switchable glass that change light transmission properties with an applied voltage. This allows the user to tint their windows, changing the amount of heat or light passing through. Another new use for tungsten is in Dense Inert Metal Explosives, the first notable use of these devices was during the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict.
2010- AIST reports a quantum yield of 19 % in photocatalytic water splitting with a cesium enhanced tungsten oxide photocatalys.

Grade

澳门老永利总部WO3 (%,min.)

Impurities (%,max. )

As

Fe

Ca

(K+Na)

Co

Mg

Special

88.8

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.0005

0.0005

1st

88.5

0.001

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.0005

Mn

Ni

Si

Ti

Mo

Cu

V

P

0.0005

0.0005

0.002

0.0005

0.002

0.0005

0.0005

0.0007

--

0.0007

0.002

0.001

0.005

0.0007

0.001

0.0007

S

Cr

Al

Sb

Pb

Sn

Bi

Cd

0.0007

0.0003

0.0003

0.0002

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0007

--

0.0005

0.0005

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

0.0001

 

Grade

澳门老永利总部Igniting loss(%)

Apparent density(g/cm3)

澳门老永利总部Screen size  (mesh)

Special

11.2

2~2.4

-80,100%

1st

11.5

2~2.4

 -

Packing:In iron drums lined with two plastic bags of 100 or 200 kgs net each.
Note:Any particular requirements to the products can be discussed.

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